class InterleavedQubitMapper(mapper)[fuente]#

Bases: FermionicMapper

A FermionicMapper wrapper returning interleaved-ordered operators.

This class is intended to be used with fermionic systems. Furthermore, it is designed to work with FermionicMapper classes which map fermionic operators to the qubit space by site (unlike for example the BravyiKitaevSuperFastMapper which maps by interactions).


The mapper will _not_ perform any assertions on the wrapped FermionicMapper. Thus, wrapping a BravyiKitaevSuperFastMapper is valid code which will indeed produce qubit operators for you. You will just not be able to interpret the order of the qubits in the same way.


The builtin two-qubit reduction of the ParityMapper will also not provide correct results when combined with this mapper. Again, this is not asserted so be aware of this pitfall. Thus, if you would like to reduce the number of qubits, you should instead look towards the TaperedQubitMapper which removes qubits based on all Z2-symmetries it detects in the operator.

For site-based mappers, Qiskit Nature always arranges the qubits corresponding to the alpha-spin and beta-spin components in a blocked fashion. I.e. the first half of the qubit register corresponds to the alpha-spin components, and the second half to the beta-spin one, like so:

a1, a2, ..., aN, b1, b2, ..., bN

This class allows you to wrap such a FermionicMapper to produce qubit operators which have an interleaved order of qubits, instead. Taking the example from before, the outcome will be the following:

a1, b1, a2, b2, ..., aN, bN


This reordering is intended for an even total number of spin orbitals (i.e. the alpha-spin and beta-spin components should be identical in length; which they usually are). However, this is not asserted, so reordering a qubit operator label of odd length will still happen.

Here is a very simple usage example:

from qiskit_nature.second_q.mappers import JordanWignerMapper, InterleavedQubitMapper
from qiskit_nature.second_q.operators import FermionicOp

blocked_mapper = JordanWignerMapper()
interleaved_mapper = InterleavedQubitMapper(blocked_mapper)

ferm_op = FermionicOp({"+_0 -_1": 1}, num_spin_orbitals=4)

blocked_op =
# SparsePauliOp(['IIXY', 'IIYY', 'IIXX', 'IIYX'], coeffs=[-0.25j, 0.25, 0.25, 0.25j])

# SparsePauliOp(['IXIY', 'IYIY', 'IXIX', 'IYIX'], coeffs=[-0.25j, 0.25, 0.25, 0.25j])

The following attributes can be set via the initializer but can also be read and updated once the InterleavedQubitMapper object has been constructed.


the actual mapper for mapping from FermionicOp to qubit operators.




mapper (FermionicMapper) – the actual FermionicMapper mapping FermionicOp to qubit operators.


map(second_q_ops, *, register_length=None)#

Maps a second quantized operator or a list, dict of second quantized operators based on the current mapper.

  • second_q_ops (FermionicOp | List[FermionicOp | None] | Dict[str, FermionicOp]) – A second quantized operator, or list thereof.

  • register_length (int | None) – when provided, this will be used to overwrite the register_length attribute of the SparseLabelOp being mapped. This is possible because the register_length is considered a lower bound in a SparseLabelOp.


A qubit operator in the form of a SparsePauliOp, or list (resp. dict) thereof if a list (resp. dict) of second quantized operators was supplied.

Tipo del valor devuelto:

SparsePauliOp | List[SparsePauliOp | None] | Dict[str, SparsePauliOp]

classmethod mode_based_mapping(second_q_op, register_length=None)#

Utility method to map a SparseLabelOp to a qubit operator using a pauli table.

  • second_q_op (SparseLabelOp) – the SparseLabelOp to be mapped.

  • register_length (int | None) – when provided, this will be used to overwrite the register_length attribute of the operator being mapped. This is possible because the register_length is considered a lower bound.


The qubit operator corresponding to the problem-Hamiltonian in the qubit space.


QiskitNatureError – If number length of pauli table does not match the number of operator modes, or if the operator has unexpected label content

Tipo del valor devuelto:


classmethod pauli_table(register_length)#

Generates a Pauli-lookup table mapping from modes to pauli pairs.

The generated table is processed by QubitMapper.sparse_pauli_operators().


register_length (int) – the register length for which to generate the table.


A list of tuples in which the first and second Pauli operator the real and imaginary Pauli strings, respectively.

Tipo del valor devuelto:

list[tuple[qiskit.quantum_info.operators.symplectic.pauli.Pauli, qiskit.quantum_info.operators.symplectic.pauli.Pauli]]

classmethod sparse_pauli_operators(register_length)#

Generates the cached SparsePauliOp terms.

This uses QubitMapper.pauli_table() to construct a list of operators used to translate the second-quantization symbols into qubit operators.


register_length (int) – the register length for which to generate the operators.


Two lists stored in a tuple, consisting of the creation and annihilation operators, applied on the individual modes.

Tipo del valor devuelto:

tuple[list[qiskit.quantum_info.operators.symplectic.sparse_pauli_op.SparsePauliOp], list[qiskit.quantum_info.operators.symplectic.sparse_pauli_op.SparsePauliOp]]